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Monday, 30 November 2015

Phd Story: Hendrati Dwi Mulyaningsih (University of Klagenfurt)

Hallo, teman-teman! 

Kali ini Phd Story berasal dari Hendrati Dwi Mulyaningsih yang saat ini sedang mengikuti program PKPI di University of Klagenfurt, dengan judul disertasinya "Knowledge-based Social Innovation Process within Social Enterprises toward Value Creation". Yup, Social Enterprise atau Social Entrepreneurship.

Apa itu Social Entrepreneurship? Mungkin kita sudah sering mendengar dan paham istilah 'entrepreneurship', namun term 'social entrepreneurship' sepertinya masih jarang diketahui di Indonesia, walaupun sudah banyak organisasi yang secara tidak sadar sudah menerapkan kegiatan ini. Apa pengertian Social Entrepreneurship? Apa perbedaannya dengan 'entrepreneurship'? Kenapa Social Entrepreneurhip penting? Apakah sama dengan non-profit organization?

Hendrati Dwi Mulyaningsih atau yang biasa disapa oleh murid-muridnya Ibu Yani menyempatkan waktu untuk memperkenalkan apa itu Social Entrepreneurship. Dalam tahun ketiganya di program S3 Doctoral Science Management SBM ITB, beliau mendapatkan beasiswa dari Dikti di program PKPI (Peningkatan Kualitas Publikasi Ilmiah) atau seperti program sandwich, di University of Klagenfurt.

Beliau berbagi ilmunya tentang social entrepreneurship, mengapa Indonesia perlu hal ini, dan apa yang beliau ingin lakukan ke depannya untuk Indonesia. Yuk, ditonton perbincangan menarik ini. 

Semoga bermanfaat!

Sunday, 29 November 2015

"What do you think of Indonesia?" by Karlie

Karl atau yang biasa disapa dengan Karlie adalah salah satu participant dari Darmasiswa Scholarship Program. Ia tinggal di Yogyakarta selama 2 tahun dan pada saat itu sebagai master student di program Social and Cultural Anthropology di Vienna, ia menulis thesisnya mengenai Gunung Merapi-- apa yang ia tulis? Dan hal menarik apa yang ia pelajari selama tinggal di Indonesia?

1. When did you come to Indonesia? How long did you stay there?

I came to Indonesia for the first time in August 2009 and stayed there for 2 years. In 2012, I returned to Indonesia and stayed for another 6 months.

2. Can you explain why you visited Indonesia? 

I went to Indonesia in 2009 as a participant of the Darmasiswa Scholarship Program. As a student of social and cultural anthropology I was (and still) very interested in the enormously rich cultural and linguistic, as well as geographical landscape of the Indonesian archipelago. 

3. What did you do in Indonesia?

For one year I studied at the P4TK Seni dan Budaya in Yogyakarta. In the first few months we got trained in Bahasa Indonesia, later I inscribed for music classes. In this first year I already got plenty of opportunities to visit various places in and around Yogya – like the Kraton and the royal cemetery in Imogiri, or the Borobudur, Prambanan or Ratu Boko temple, as well as many, many others. The first year passed by so fast and Yogyakarta already felt like my second home –  much more than Vienna did, although I already lived there for more than 6 years by that time. But that’s why I decided to stay longer and ended up living in Yogya for another year. 

I love the city and its people, this fantastic mix of rural and urban culture, flavored with thousands of students from all over Indonesia (and other parts of the world).  By that time I was still inscribed as a master student at the department for social and cultural anthropology in Vienna and I was more or less half-heartedly writing on my thesis. But that suddenly changed in October 2010, when the Merapi volcano started to erupt violently. After visiting various monitoring posts and temporary evacuation centers I decided to discard my former topic and to write about the Merapi, about the people living on its slopes, about their close connection with the prosperous but hazardous volcanic land and inspirited environment, about their individual risk management and strength and challenges regarding the government’s disaster management.

Unfortunately, I had to return to Austria in 2011, not at last to finish my master program. But I returned to DIY as part of an international and interdisciplinary research project less than a year later. It was once more a great experience, that time even more as I was living in a small town close to Imogiri and was thankfully been given a room in a local household. 

4. What are some things that you were “shocked” from Indonesia (culturally and other aspects like.. macet... :P)?

Ya… the macet for sure. But one of the first things that actually caught my eye was something even before I really touched Indonesian grounds. Just a few minutes before landing in Jakarta I saw all this little fires, as I learned later, they were people burning their garbage. So, I might say that what shocked me the most was the pollution and the lack of a sufficiently working waste management. I sometimes saw children grilling corn or other stuff on fires nourished by poisonous plastic garbage. Or if one finds once more thrown away batteries in the irrigation canals for the paddy fields.

5. What are the things that you learn from experiencing life in Indonesia?

One of my most important experiences is living among a Muslim society. I learnt a lot about Islam and experienced how well hearted many people welcomed me and to join them even in religious ceremonies. No one ever harassed me for not being a Muslim but accepted me the way I am. Once, on the slopes of Merapi, an old man told me that religions are like the paths leading to the top of a mountain – they all lead to the same God. These experiences made me pretty resistant against all the 
Islamophobia that we currently witness. I guess that I’m now more satisfied with what I have. I met so many people who really had to face tough conditions but they frequently managed to find one or the other thing to be happy about. And, for sure – how could I forget – I learnt Indonesian.

6. What do you like about Indonesia? (Can you describe a specific example from your experience?)

Where to begin with? I really loved that living in Yogya felt like being part of a big social community – even if you don’t know each other. If you met someone new, just randomly at the street or the person who sits next to you during a wayang kulit show or at the angkringan, it was the most natural to act as if you were friends and to just start interacting and to share some boiled nuts or stuff. Strangers are treated with much more interest than it is the case in Austria. I sometimes have the feeling that too many Austrians see in strangers foremost a potential threat and not someone exciting, who has a story to tell and with whom it would be interesting to exchange experiences and skills. 

Besides that, I really loved the amazingly beautiful nature, the various very delicious cooking traditions, the very interesting diverse cultures with their dances, music and ceremonies, and not to forget … I really liked to drive around with my motorbike, an old Honda 100 CB. 

7. What do you hope for Indonesia in the future?

I really wish that Indonesia reminds its old principle ‘Bhinneka Tunggal Ika’. One can sadly witness a rise and/or strengthening of rather antidemocratic and radical powers, that think that can scare away religious minorities or forcefully convert them, if not way worse. I really hope that the Indonesian government will step up and do something against this trend that is now going on for way too long. 

But it seems every country has its own share of these backwarded and intolerant groups. FPÖ or FPI, they are two sides of the same coin – and that’s a coin I can happily miss in my wallet. 
Besides that: Just the best! Protection for humans and nature. Development and growth that is sustainable and that doesn’t just serve a small elite and forest investors.

Thursday, 26 November 2015

Skiing in Innsbruck


Winter is finally here!

If you like winter sports, then Austria is a great country for you. There are a multitude of regions offering top notch quality ski resorts. One of these ski regions is around the city of Innsbruck. 

While there are many points of interest in the historic city itself too, let's focus today on the winter sports offerings surrounding it. Innsbruck’s Olympia Skiworld is comprised of nine different ski resorts offering avid skiiers and snowboarders plenty of space to indulge themselves. 

All nine resorts can be visited by using a single ski pass. Of course it’s not only experienced skiiers who can enjoy a holiday here, since there is a broad selection of skiing schools offering lessons for people of every experience level. Parents also don’t have to worry about losing sight of their children while skiing, as there are specialised ski schools for children and even ski-kindergartens that can look after children as young as two years old. 

As an example for the ski schools in the area you could look at the “Skischule Schaber” (http://www.skischule-schaber.at).  Located by the village of Obsteig just outside of Innsbruck, this school offers courses for adults and children. Adults can take part in group courses lasting for 2 hours each. For the first day of such a class you would pay 45€. If you decide to take classes on multiple days, then the rate per day becomes cheaper with 5 days costing a total of 125€. If you would rather have private lessons, then that is also possible at the school. Rates for a teacher for 1-2 people are 55€ an hour. For children there is an extra area which is created especially in order to safely teach them how to ski, while also offering fun activities. Snowboarding lessons are also offered at the same rates as ski lessons.


Making skiing in Innsbruck even more comfortable is the so called Ski Bus (www.innsbruck-pauschalen.com/en/service/free-skibus.html). This bus connects several hotels in Innsbruck to the ski resorts and is available to be used free of charge with a guest card provided to you by the place of accommodation you are staying at. 

If you feel like taking a break from regular skiing and want to enjoy the winter landscapes with others, then you can always take part in a ski tour. There are many different routes to choose from with varying starting altitudes and lengths of the tour. Usually you should expect such a tour to last around three hours, but of course there are shorter paths for beginners and longer ones for those who really seek to challenge themselves.

Other activities you can do in the area include taking Bobsleigh rides down the Olympic track or if you are feeling especially adventurous, you can trade in the Bobsleigh and try out the more bizarre Wok Race created by TV host Stefan Raab.

Certainly also for the more adventurous individuals are the numerous ice climbing possibilities in the area:
Ice skating
Winter hike
Cross country
Night sports
Horse drawn sleigh rides


Saturday, 21 November 2015

"What do you think of Indonesia?" by Daniela Paredes

Daniela Paredes, yang mungkin kalian sempat lihat di video kami tentang vegetarian food, sempat kami wawancarai mengenai impression dia tentang Indonesia. Ia pernah tinggal di Indonesia selama 2 tahun dan banyak sekali kenangan manis dan menarik yang ia ingin share. Yuk, simak obrolan kami dan apa harapan dia untuk Indonesia..?  :)

1. So how did you come to Indonesia and how long did you stay there?

I went to Indonesia for the first time in August 2009, thinking I would stay there only one year. However, I went with an open mind and traveled with a one-way ticket. I ended up staying over 2 years and coming back for a second short trip. 

Why I came to Indonesia... I always was curious about Asia. I had met 2 Indonesian friends in the US and had a brief experience with Javanese Gamelan as well. I was looking for scholarships to make this trip and finally Ecuador and Indonesia signed an agreement and there was this chance. So I went to Indonesia as part of a Cultural Exchange Program organized by the Indonesian Ministry of Education and Culture. 

2. How did you enjoy Indonesia?  

I had a wonderful time! I met amazing people and learned to love the world a little more. I first attended some Bahasa Indonesia lessons. Then I studied some Javanese Gamelan, and then I switched to diverse musics of the archipelago such as from Sumatra or Kalimantan. I got to learn about how many different forms of making music, and making sense of it there are in what we call Indonesia. Then I learned a little more Bahasa Indonesia, a little about Literature and also West Javanese Dance. But honestly it wasn't only what I learned in classes, but moreover the experiences of living in Indonesia that taught me so much. I learned from my fellow students: Indonesian and International. I learned from my neighbors, I learned from the wise ladies selling traditional medicine (Jamu), I learned from my friends, I learned to be friendlier.

4. Where there any cultural shocks that you experienced or were you shocked by macet? :p

I was shocked at the amount of motorcycles. I didn't know there were so many! When I left the train station in Yogyakarta, I thought there were many shops selling motorcycles, and then realized they were parking lots for motorcycles. It was also hard to get used to driving on the left side, but I had no accidents and with time it went well, I even drove a motorcycle myself. 

Culturally I was at the beginning very happy with people being so friendly. Then I wasn't so happy about so many questions about my life from the neighbors, I thought they were asking too much private stuff. But slowly I realized that there is also another side to it, your neighbors know you well and therefore know when something isn't right. When a stranger is roaming around your house suspiciously they will act. Of course some people just ask too many questions, and that you will find everywhere in the world. So finally, I was glad my neighbors knew some stuff about me and were there to protect me in case needed. 

What was also new to me was the style of saying things in not such a direct way, sometimes also not looking directly into the eye. I had to learn that these were cultural codes and in certain cases the most respectful path to follow. In one case it was more efficient to tell people around me that I needed something, instead of asking directly the person that I knew was in charge of that. It worked!

5. Any other interesting things you learned living in Indonesia?

Well first of all it was my first time living in a muslim country, and I loved it. I learned something that we know all deep in our hearts, we aren't so different after all, we are all people. Even religions have so many values in common, so many celebrations and notions. I think in general terms I learned to find the commonalities and not the differences. 

I learned also to be happier with less. I lived in Yogyakarta where many people live with the basics and enjoyed life, their puppet-theatre in the evening, a late night chat with friends at an Angkringan eating Nasi Kucing, and more. 

6. What do you like about Indonesia?

There is so much I like about Indonesia. Of course a beautiful place is only a place without its people, so I think with Indonesia, it is the people that I like the most. This is a generalization, there are over 250 million Indonesians and I didn't meet even 1% of them, besides there is a very big diversity of people within the country, but, again, generalizing, I met full hearted people with gorgeous smiles and shining eyes, with generous spirits that invited me for a tea after knowing me 5 minutes. 

6. What do you hope for Indonesia in the future?

I really hope for wisdom. Corruption needs to be tackled at all levels, not just the politicians in power, but starting with everyday things in the neighborhood. I hope for more of this amazing heart that I know many Indonesian people have and to have it inspire their actions for their fellow men, women, girls and boys. There is too much injustice for such a wealthy land. I hope for more love translated into tolerance, respect, dignity and better livelihoods. 

Film Review: The root of inequality?

Video of Guns, Germs, and Steel.


Banyak dari kita mungkin pernah bertanya hal ini sebelumnya. Ada yang mendapat jawaban, dan ada yang tidak. Suatu pertanyaan yang bisa dikatakan sangat sederhana, "Why is there inequality among humans?", atau "mengapa ada ketidaksetaraan?" atau juga dapat diinterpretasikan, “Mengapa ada orang miskin?”, tetapi awalnya tidak mudah untuk dijawab bagi Jared Diamond, host dari film dokumenter Guns, Gems, and Steel ini. Kita melihat adanya perbedaan dan ketidaksamaan di sepenjuru bumi ini. Jangankan di bumi ini, di Indonesia pun sudah sangat jelas terlihat di depan mata. Mengapa ada orang punya dan ada yang tidak punya? 

Jared Diamond, seorang professor dari UCLA, Los Angeles, yang akhirnya berusaha untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini. Ia telah menyempatkan 30 tahun untuk menyelidiki dan menggarap dari berbagai sumber untuk mencari jawaban selengkap mungkin. Dan perjalanan Jared Diamond dalam pencariannya dimuat dalam film dokumenter yang dibagi menjadi tiga topik: "Out of Eden", "Conquest", dan "Into the Tropics", dimana intinya adalah menyelidiki akar dari ketidaksamaan (roots of inequality) di permukaan bumi ini. 

Awalnya, Diamond mengunjungi Papua Nugini untuk memenuhi rasa kagumnya terhadap burung. Ia sering mengunjungi Papua dan mempelajari banyak hal mengenai orang-orang Papua serta bahasa yang mereka gunakan. Satu hal yang telah ia pelajari, bahwa orang Papua Nugini sangatlah beragam dan sangat mudah beradaptasi. 

Suatu hari, seorang warga Papua bernama Yali, menghampirinya dan bertanya,” Why you white people have so much cargo and we Nuginians have so little?” (Mengapa kalian bangsa kulit putih punyak banyak muatan dan kami orang Nugini punya sangat sedikit?). Dengan kata lain, yang ingin ditanyakan Yali adalah, mengapa kalian kaya dan kita miskin? Jared Diamond pada awalnya mengira bahwa pertanyaan sederhana itu pasti ada jawaban yang sederhana. Namun, ia salah. Yang ia pahami pada waktu itu, pada saat bangsa kulit putih datang ke Papua, mereka menempatkan diri mereka sebagai bangsa yang paling atas karena faktor gen dan dibuktikan oleh muatan kargo yang mereka bawa. Namun, Diamond tidak setuju dengan pernyataan tersebut, karena ia tidak melihat perbedaan tingkat genetik apapun dengan kulit putih dan hitam. Ia menyadari bahwa ia tidak mungkin dapat selamat hidup di Papua tanpa bantuan mereka, dan ia juga sangat percaya bahwa orang Papua kuat dan cerdas. Lalu, mengapa? Diamond tidak bisa menjawab. 

Dari situlah, ilmuwan biologis and ahli fisiologis manusia ini, memulai penyelidikannnya mengenai akar ketidaksamaan, untuk menjawab pertanyaan Yali, dan tentunya pertanyaan kita semua. 
Pada masa pra sejarah, peradaban belum ada dan semua sama, penduduk Papua Nugini adalah salah satu orang pertama yang bertani, selain di Timur Tengah dan Cina. Namun, mengapa mereka tidak berkembang seperti yang lainnya? Dalam bagian ini, diperlihatkan bahwa, daratan tinggi di Papua Nugini menyebabkan jenis makanannya tidak selengkap di tempat lain, dan tentu tipe atau jenis bertaninya berbeda. Di negara seperti Timur Tengah menghasilkan banyak panen, dan mempunyai hewan yang dapat membantu bertani, yaitu kuda, sapi, dan kambing. Sedangkan di Papua hanya menghasilkan talas dan sagu, dan tidak memilik hewan-hewan seperti di daerah lainnya. Faktor inilah yang mempengaruhi akar dari ketidaksamaan. Satu hal yang mendorong banyaknya hasil panen adalah lahan atau geografi. Dan secara geografis, lahan Papua Nugini tidak seberuntung yang lain, oleh karena itu tidak seproduktif daerah yang menghasilkan banyak. 

Penduduk Papua terlalu fokus mencari makan demi kelangsungan hidup mereka, sehingga tidak punya waku untuk memikirkan hal lain, salah satunya dalam hal teknologi. Penduduk Eropa, dengan penjelasan sejarahnya, yang bertempat tinggal di geografis yang makmur, datang ke Papua, menggunakan teknologi mereka untuk menjajah penduduk Papua. 

Tujuan film dokumenter ini bukanlah untuk menghakimi atau menentukan penduduk Papua Nugini selalu miskin dan kita tidak usah peduli, tetapi untuk memberikan suatu harapan. Suatu perubahan berawal dari harapan yang besar. Dan harapan bermula dari suatu pehamanan akan suatu hal. Kita sekarang sudah paham hal-hal yang menyebabkan ketidaksamaan, yaitu secara geografis, mereka tidak beruntung, dan kita sebaiknya menggunakan pengetahuan itu untuk merubah dan mempebaiki keadaan, untuk membantu mereka yang miskin. 

Tapi, mungkin juga, banyak yang tidak setuju dengan pernyataan Diamond ini. Bagaimana dengan Indonesia yang dari awalnya sudah berlimpah dengan berbagai kekayaan alam? Apakah ada hubungannya juga dengan pengetahuan? Penjajahan?

Sunday, 1 November 2015

Peringatan Hari Sumpah Pemuda (HSP) 2015

 By: Syifa Nurhanifah

Seperti yang kita ketahui tanggal 28 Oktober adalah hari Sumpah Pemuda yang mana  hari tersebut kita mengenang perjuangan para Pemuda Indonesia pada tahun 1928 yang telah berhasil menyatukan Visi kebangsaan dan melahirkan sebuah komitmen kebangsaan yang utuh yaitu bertumpah darah satu tanah air indonesia, berbangsa satu Bangsa Indonesia, dan menjunjung bahasa persatuan Bahasa Indonesia.

Sumpah Pemuda 1928 lahir bukan hanya sebuah sejarah yang patut dikenang namun juga sebagai spirit bagi Pemudi – Pemuda Indonesia untuk terus ikut serta dalam memperjuangkan dan membela tanah Air Indonesia di masa kini dan masa yang akan datang. Oleh karena itu, sebagai Pemudi-Pemuda penerus bangsa yang telah di berikan kesempatan untuk bisa mengenyam pendidikan di negara-negara maju seperti Austria, sepantasnyalah kita ikut berpartisipasi menebarkan semangat Sumpah Pemuda 1928 ini dengan memberikan kontribusi terhadap Indonesia tercinta. Caranya bisa bermacam-macam. Seperti yang dilakukan oleh beberapa teman-teman PPIA, yaitu Bram dan Meta, mereka berdua telah menunjukkan semangat sumpah pemuda dengan ikut berpartisipasi menjadi petugas Upacara dalam Upacara Sumpah Pemuda. Bram bertugas sebagai pembaca Text keputusan Kongress Pemuda1928 dan Meta bertugas memimpin peserta upacara menyanyikan lagu „Satu Nusa Satu Bangsa“ dan „Bangun Pemudi Pemuda“. Upacara berlangsung begitu khidmatnya, ditambah dengan penyampaian pesan dari MENPORA yang disampaikan oleh Bapak Dubes kita, Bapak H. Rachmat Budiman yang pada saat itu bertugas sebagai pembina Upacara. 

Sumber Foto: KBRI Wina

Sumber Foto: KBRI Wina

Yang berbeda dan yang paling menarik dari peringatan Hari Sumpah Pemuda  (HSP) tahun 2015 ini adalah  Tema HSP ke 87 ini. Tema HSP tahun 2015 ini adalah „Revolusi Mental untuk Kebangkitan Pemuda menuju Aksi SATU UNTUK BUMI“

Apa sih maksud dari tema tersebut?
Yuph, seiring dengan perkembangan jaman, entah itu perkembangan industri, ekonomi atau teknologi, secara tak sadar ataupun sadar lingkungan telah menjadi korban akibat Perkembangan ini. Banyak sekali sungai-sungai yang tercemar cairan kimia akibat dari limbah industri-industri besar, banyak sekali penggundulan-penggundulan hutan akibat dari tingginya kebutuhan akan kayu-kayu yang dipergunakan sebagai bahan utama dalam beberapa produksi, sampai juga bencana-bencana alam yang terjadi akibat pengeksploitasian SDA. Selain itu  kadar CO2 juga kini kian meningkat akibat dari Perindustrian dan juga alat transportasi yang notabene digunakan oleh warga dalam keseharian. „Tahun 2015 ini saja Indonesia merupakan negara yang paling banyak memproduksi CO2 diseluruh Asia tenggara“ begitu ucap MENPORA yang disampaikan oleh Bapak Dubes.

Sumber foto: KBRI Wina

Oleh karena itu melalu tema HSP tahun 2015 ini diharapkan pemuda Indonesia ikut berpartisipasi dalam program nasional Revolusi mental, dari mulai yang acuh tak acuh terhadap lingkungan, manjadi cinta dan sayang Lingkungan untuk menyelamatkan Bumi Indonesia yang kini kian terancam keasriannya. Ikut dalam berpartisipasi mensukseskan program dunia, yaitu Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) yang bertujuan sama yaitu menyeimbangkan pertumbuhan/perkembangan dunia  dengan kelestarian lingkungan hidup untuk masa depan generasi mendatang. Artinya, seiring dengan perkembangan negara (terutama dalam sisi perekonomian), kita tidak boleh mengorbankan kelestarian Alam dan Sumber Dayanya ini dengan mengeksploitasinya namun harus tetap menjaga keberlangsungannya (sustainability). Karena Anak cucu kita yang akan hidup di masa depan juga masih butuh bumi ini, Bumi beserta alam yang lestari.

Untuk lebih bisa memaknai Tema HSP 2015 berikut ini adalah LOGO beserta Arti dan maknanya:

Makna Logo:
1.   Element Utama Logo adalah Bumi yang di Topang oleh 3 tangan. Gambar Globe menjadi Fokus Logo sebagai representasi tema Utama HSP 2015, “SATU UNTUK BUMI”
2.  Sepasang tangan Menopang dan satu tangan mengepal (3 Tangan) adalah reprsentasi 3 Semangat Sumpah Pemuda: Nusa, Bangsa, Bahasa.
Tangan Menopang Bumi adalah simbol dalam menjaga keberlanjutan gerakan penyelamatan bumi.
Tangan terkepal adalah simbol semangat pemuda.
3.     Elemen tipografi HSP menggunakan variasi pola font 70th Indonesia Merdeka 2015. Warna Font Hijau adalah simbol alam, bumi, semangat dan perdamaian sebagai tema HSP 2015. Sedangkan tipografi “Selamatkan bumi-hari sumpah pemuda 2015 adalah Identitas kegiatan sekaligus penegasan tema.
4.     Elemen api merah putih adalah simbol semangat dan kekuatan pemuda Indonesia (Sumber: Buku pedoman HSP 2015)

So, bagi kawan-kawan yang masih bingung mau berkontribusi seperti apa untuk Indonesia, Tema HSP 2015 ini bisa dijadikan sebagai acuan atau ide bagaimana kamu memulai untuk berkontribusi. Bukan berarti kamu harus menjadi pahlawan alam dengan memadamkan api di riau atau ikut berdemonstrasi menuntut kebijakan-kebijakan pemerintah yang belum memuaskan misalnya. namun cobalah mulai dengan diri sendiri, contohnya pada pola konsumsi dengan memperhatikan ke ecology-annya ataupun dengan penghematan penggunaan Energi. Karena memulai dari hal yang kecil akan memberikan contoh bagi yang lain. Jika ada yang memulai maka hal itu akan menyebar.